Measuring Crime and Morality: The bureaucratic life of a novel concept under the Habsburg Monarchy in the late 18th and first third of the 19th century

Himl, Pavel

This article explores the concept of “morality” as it developed in the field of criminal justice under the Habsburg monarchy during and after the Enlightenment reforms. Two penal codes, ratified in 1787 and 1803–1804, established a new, separate category for serious police offences with a heavy focus on acts against morality. Some of these offenses were grouped according to their explicitly public dimension, like endangering the public peace or serving as a bad example.

Criminality: Terminology and Interpretation (An Introduction)

Szeghyová, Blanka

This issue examines some theoretical questions and concerns related to the study of criminality in the past. The categories and boundaries of what is considered criminal depend on circumstances determined by both power and religion. An act was not considered a crime until generally recognized as such, or made illegal by those with the power or authority to do so. Each era and society maintained its own scale and hierarchy of crimes. Some forms of behaviour were criminalised, others decriminalised.

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