Politické funkcie a lojality ako zdroj nekriminálnej korupcie v demokracii a diktatúre

Political Posts and Loyalties as a Source of an "Un-criminal" Corruption in Democracy and Dictatorship

The author sees an uncriminal corruption as an acquiring of property and various privileges and benefits according to applicable laws and rules on the basis of political posts and loyalties. He analyzes its symptoms in the interwar democratic Czechoslovak Republik and in the autoritarian wartime Slovak Republic with its growing tendency to the totalitarian regime.
The interwar Czechoslovak Republic, as a new European state, tried to strengthen its new political elites also by their more powerful economic positions. For this aim, the agrarian reform was also utilised as the State Land Office, controled by the Agrarian Party, assigned so called remnant estates first of all to politicians and supporters of ruling coalition parties and specially of the Agrarian Party, in Slovakia about 530 such estates. The law was not formally violated but the work of the Office had symptoms of a corruption and opposition politicians refered to those phenomens and protested against them. Another way to strengthen positions of majority politicians was through acquiring of posts in boards of directors of banks, industrial enterprizes and various bussines associations controling the whole economic sectors.
The agrarian reform in the Slovak Republic has not been able to be used to mentioned aimes as the reform has been narrowed only to the expropriated Jewish land. Less than 50 estates were assigned to the politicians of the governing People´s Party and to their relatives. Thanks to the growing Slovak capital in the Slovak economy, the politicians had the possibility to acquire, according to the laws, influential posts in boards of directors of banks and smaller enterprizes, as the greatest factories were in German hands.
Symptoms of an uncriminal corruption of politicians and party sympathisers have been evident also after the second world war, in the Communist dictatorship and after 1989, in the restored parliamentary democracy.