violence

The Forced Collectivization of Agriculture in Hungary in the years 1948 – 1961

Ö. Kovács, József

One of the most comprehensive social operations in the process of Sovietisation was the liquidation of the traditional peasant society. The individual peasant farmers, the organisations and church communities of rural society represented a political counter-base in the path of the communist programme. The land and the people could only be collectivised through the use of terror. The "collective farms" created in the first wave of collectivization were a failure for the programme of Sovietisation.

The 'Green Cadres' as a Radical Alternative for the Countryside in Western Slovakia and East Central Europe, 1917 - 1920

Beneš, Jakub

This article explores the phenomenon of the ‘Green Cadres' at the end of the First World War in Austria-Hungary, with a focus on events in western Slovakia 1918-1920. The Green Cadres were bands of army deserters and radicalized peasants who hid in the forests and mountains of the monarchy during the last year of the war and then violently attempted to topple the social-political order in many localities as the state collapsed.

From Social Radicalism To Radical Socialism, 1918 - 1920

The study deals with the circumstances of the formation of social protests within the context of the lower classes during the first years after the establishment of Czechoslovakia and with the relationship between social radicalism and radical socialism during this period. On one hand, the author focuses on the social causes of the protests, on the other hand, the ways in which the protests were expressed are analysed.

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