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This issue of Forum Historiae is dedicated to an exploration of social and political trust and distrust, phenomena which have continually influenced the structure of social hierarchies and remained decisive factors for acceptance, exclusion and control in different types of societies and regimes. Social scientists agree that liberal democracies cannot function without trust, which takes the form of social capital, and even autocracies and dictatorships cannot be based on fear alone or promises of material wellbeing without some modicum of trust between rulers and the ruled. The studies presented in these pages focus on concerns of political and interpersonal trust—or the lack thereof—in both democratic and communist regimes dealing predominantly with the relationships between citizens and political institutions, and between institutions and their representatives. There is a distinct focus on the Cold War era, however, in some cases, continuities in developments extend beyond the given period. Authors centered their work on a discussion of the phenomenon of trust and distrust across East-West borders in the spheres of economy and cultural and scientific relationships, as well as the émigré’s circles.