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Čo je predmetom historického textu? Akým spôsobom sú prezentované výsledky historických výskumov? K čomu vlastne tieto výskumy referujú? Odpovede na tieto otázky hľadajú teoretici histórie, zatiaľ čo samotní historici ich spravidla (prinajmenšom v kontexte slovenskej inštitucionalizovanej historiografie) ignorujú. Jedným z najviac viditeľných dôsledkov tejto absencie teoretickej reflexie je recyklovanie zaužívaných historiografických stereotypov, samozrejmé používanie pojmov a schém, ktorých obsah je z analytického hľadiska často pochybný, resp. neudržateľný. Pokiaľ chceme eliminovať produkciu historických poznatkov tohto druhu, je nevyhnutná teoretická reflexia historikov o povahe vlastnej disciplíny. Tento cieľ si pred seba kladie aj toto číslo Forum Historiae. Prináša sedem štúdií a tri recenzie, ktoré rôznym spôsobom analyzujú implikácie naratívnej formy a ideologickej podmienenosti historického textu pre povahu historického poznania.

Forum Historiae 2/2009: Historická narácia, ideológia a historiografia
Zostavovatelia: Karol Hollý
Preklady z poľštiny: Karol Hollý, Miroslav Zumrik
Preklady z angličtiny: László Vörös, Eugen Zeleňák
Grafická úprava: Juraj Benko
Autori: Ewa Domańska, Juraj Dvorský, Karol Hollý, Piotr H. Kosicki, Alexander Maxwell, Jan Mervart, Herman Paul, Jan Pomorski, Jan Randák, Eugen Zeleňák
 
 
© HistorickÝ Ústav Slovenskej akadÉmie vied 2009

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Uhol pohľadu v súčasnej historiografii

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Jan Pomorski
Summary

Jan Pomorski: Point of View as a Category in Contemporary Historiography

The paper aims to give an outline of what the author considers to be the most influential tendencies in contemporary historiography, perspectivism being one of them. The text is divided into a theoretical and a practical part, where an example of a perspectivistic approach is given, commenting a recent work of Irmina Wawryczek of the Marie Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. To begin with, perspectivism has become one of the leading approaches in today's humanities, having roots already some centuries ago. The approach is essential to a modern philosophy of history and is to be seen in context of the "boom" of postmodernism and, to name just one more, microhistorical research. It represents an opposition to an "anything-goes-attitude". The crucial question to be raised within it is being articulated as how the humans perceive the world. The answer of perspectivism is inspired by several approaches, such as cross-cultural and gender studies, Alltagsgeschichte or every-day-life-story-research. Every experience consists of two components, the one being pure individual, the other culture-bound matrix of explication, in other words, a matrix of tradition understood as a kind of cumulated experience, or a projection of possible words onto the material of individual experience. This component is bound to language, the examination of history thus being identical with an examination of language itself. Pomorski then sketches an etymological explanation of the polish word for "experience", citing Józef Tischner and arrives at the distinction between the primordial experience and the event of history, placed into the realm of axiology as well and an element of historical reality. A historical event is an objectified, consensual creation leading to "history" as a form of the man's conceptualizing the world, projecting "meaning" onto the original now-and-here . Historiography then deals with the research of historical artifacts, deconstructing the created history, the telling of "what had happened". It is essential to remember that this "telling of history" is not an objective reproduction of what had happened but rather a metonymical act taking place in and through language. In conclusion, Pomorski names an example of such an approach, when commenting Irmina Wawryczek's book on sexual and other cultural habits of colonists in a small North-American village Chesapeak in the 17th century. It is shown that though with not much material basis (written documents), it is possible to reconstruct how an every-day-life there could had been like – and that it is not relevant to see historical research as a quest for the ultimate truth. Historiography is rather a meta-language, commenting and examining how the historians construct the historical reality.

Bibliografická informácia

Jan Pomorski : Uhol pohľadu v súčasnej historiografii. In Forum Historiae, 2009, roč. 3, č. 2. ISSN 1337-6861.


O AUTOROVI O AUTOROVI

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Prof. dr. hab. Jan Pomorski stojí od jeho vzniku roku 1987 na čele Ústavu metodológie histórie Univerzity Marie Curie-Skłodowskej (Zakład Metodologii Historii UMCS) v Lubline. Svoj výskum zameriava najmä na metodológiu histórie a iných sociálnych vied. Z tejto oblasti publikoval štyri monografie a niekoľko desiatok vedeckých štúdií.


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2009/02 Historická narácia, ideológia a historiografia