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The art of the early 19th century and especially the question of its directions after the year 1800 has repeatedly been the subject of attention of art historians in recent decades. The conventional image of the 19th century as a century of varying historicist styles, insisting on academic rules, sentimental and/or heroic religious and historic imagery and bourgeois taste seems to have more to it than just being a prelude to the modernism that emerged. In Central European visual arts, the question of transition from the late 18th century into the modern era is related to the study of a series of long undervalued artists whose names have (now) either almost vanished or were dismissed (in the past). An example of this are Johann Friedrich Overbeck (1789 – 1869) and his followers – Nazarenes – also known as monk-artists. This issue of Forum Historiae, first entirely in English, is devoted to studies which examine European Nazarenism and role of Joseph Führich (1800 – 1876) in it, from various points of views and perspectives, taking into account the autonomous reception of Nazarenism in different countries, but also the unifying role of the model images produced by key Nazarene artists.

Forum Historiae 2/2017: Local Roots – European Connections. The Position of Nazarene Art in 19th-Century Europe
Zostavovatelia: Pavla Machalíková – Angelika Herucová
jazyková úprava: Robin Cassling
obrázok na titulnej strane: Friedrich Overbeck: Adoration of the Kings (1813, detail). Source: commons.wikimedia.org
Grafická úprava: Juraj Benko
Autori: Katarína Beňová, Marta Herucová, Adéla Klinerová, Olga Kotková, Katharina Lovecky, Isabelle Saint Martin, Pavel Štěpánek, Petr Tomášek
© HistorickÝ Ústav Slovenskej akadÉmie vied 2017


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The Heritage of the Nazarene tradition in Slovakia during the 2nd half of the 19th Century (J. B. Klemens and K. Švestka)

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Katarína Beňová

Beňová, Katarína: The Heritage of the Nazarene tradition in Slovakia during the 2nd half of the 19th Century (J. B. Klemens and K. Švestka)
During the second half of the 19th century sacral painting increased in the area of the Upper Hungary (now Slovakia). By this time the main reason was quite productive rise of building of a new churches or renovation of the former ones. In this territory it was mostly the activity of the specialist for the sacral art, who under the conductorship of their donors and submitters influenced it. One of them was a member of the Franciscan order and painter Konrád Švestka (Schwestka, 1833 – 1907), active mainly during the second half of the 19th century. He worked namely the Salvatorian province as a sculptor, church interior designer, restorer and renovator. The second important personality in sacral painting was the painter, geologist and scientist, Slovak patriot Jozef Božetech Klemens (1817 – 1883) who primarily operated in the area of today's Slovakia. In a relation to their generation, Švestka and Klemens seem as a completion of one stage of development. In contrast to the votaries of Modernism (for example the Beuron Art School), artists of sacral-historical compositions (such as Mihály Munkácsy), by practice, realization and ways of thinking, they were evidently tied to the older tradition of modern times. Their art and renovations were the service to God, and reflected the tastes of the ones that commissioned them, where the Nazarene tradition belonged to frequently used.


sacral painting, Jozef Božetech Klemens, Konrád Švestka, Nazarenes

Bibliografická informácia

Katarína Beňová : The Heritage of the Nazarene tradition in Slovakia during the 2nd half of the 19th Century (J. B. Klemens and K. Švestka). In Forum Historiae, 2017, roč. 11, č. 2. ISSN 1337-6861.


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Katarína Beňová studied at the Department of Art History at the Comenius University in Bratislava between 1995 – 2001, where she also finished her PhD. studies in 2010. Since 2000 she is working as a curator of the 19 th century fine arts at Slovak national Gallery and since 2007 at the Department of Art History as teaching assistant. Her main area of intereste is 19 th century fine art of the Central Europe with the focus of biedermeier, and work of Ladislav Mednyánszky. She prepared curatorial project as Mednyásnzky (2003 – 2004), A.Strobl (2006), J. Rombauer (2009), Two landscapes (2014) and Biedermeier (2015).


2017/02 Local Roots - European Connections. The Position of Nazarene Art...