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Zdôrazňovanie rozmanitosti mocenského postavenia bolo bežnou súčasťou politického myslenia v stredoveku. Niekedy sa však na to zabúda. Ako sa ale uplatňovala moc v ranom stredoveku? Ako boli organizované politické útvary? Môžeme ich považovať za unifikované kráľovstvá a kniežatstvá? Je správne ich vnímať ako moderné štáty? Na niektoré otázky sa pokúsili zodpovedať autori v jednotlivých štúdiách tohto čísla Forum Historiae. Našou ambíciou je zapojiť sa do diskusií o fungovaní politických útvarov, mocenských prejavoch a postavení panovníka v stredoveku, ktoré už dlhodobo prebiehajú v západnej medievistike a do ktorých sa čoraz častejšie zapájajú aj historici zo susedných krajín. Zároveň sme chceli zaplniť prázdne miesto v slovenskej medievistike, v ktorej sa málokedy môžeme stretnúť s témami, ktoré prináša toto číslo.

Forum Historiae 2/2014: Moc a štát v stredovekej Európe
Zostavovatelia: Pavol Hudáček - Rastislav Kožiak
Obrázok na titulnej strane: Šachové figúrky (vyrobené z mrožích klov) známe ako "Lewis Chessmen" z 12. storočia
Preklad do angličtiny: Zuzana Orságová
Preklad z angličtiny: Zuzana Orságová
Preklad z poľštiny: Gabriela Zaťková
Preklad z maďarčiny: Tünde Lengyelová
Jazyková redatorka: Viera Luptáková
Grafická úprava: Juraj Benko
Autori: Peter Bystrický, Florin Curta, Pavol Hudáček, David Kalhous, Gergely Bálint Kiss, Miroslav Lysý, Dariusz Andrzej Sikorski; Ján Steinhübel, Gábor Szeberényi; Dušan Zupka
 
Forum Historiae 2/2014 "Moc a štát v stredovekej Európe" bolo podporené Agentúrou na podporu výskumu a vývoja na základe zmluvy č. APVV-0051-12 Stredoveké hrady na Slovensku : Život, kultúra, spoločnosť a Vedeckou grantovou agentúrou na základe projektu VEGA 2/0109/14: Komunikácia a spôsoby šírenia informácií v stredoveku.
 
© HistorickÝ Ústav Slovenskej akadÉmie vied 2014

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Rex eris, si recte facias: si non facias, non eris. Panovnícka moc a jej reprezentácia v stredovekej strednej Európe (10. - 13. storočie)

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Dušan Zupka
Summary

Dušan Zupka: Ruler's Power and its Representation in Medieval Central Europe (10th – 13th Century)

The study deals with the issue of royal and princely power and its representation in medieval Central Europe region between the 10th and 13th century. The main focus is placed on the royal power in Hungary, Poland and Bohemia. It briefly deals with the theories of ruler's power in the medieval Occident, mapping its origins in Roman and Biblical political thinking. Some of the main characteristics which shaped these theories were most prominently the concepts of ruler's sacrality, belief in his supernatural powers and notion of his indispensability in the medieval society. We tried to outline the evolution of the royal and princely power in medieval Hungary, Poland and Bohemia with an emphasis on its understanding and interpretation in contemporary sources. Although many of the features were common for all three studied countries, each of them showed important peculiarities based on different historical and cultural developments.
The main premises, from which the conclusions of the study derive, are as follows: the ruler's power had to be publicly demonstrated repeatedly to communicate theoretical postulates through the use of ceremonial behaviour. In the course of time we defined three fundamental observations. Firstly, the rituals of royalty served as means of legitimization of princely power. Secondly, the examples of ritualized behaviour must be followed in two ways. On the one hand as real political events and on the other hand as strong narrative weapon and a tool for interpretation in contemporary sources. Thirdly, a certain learning process can be observed in respect to adapting and creating ways of symbolical and ritual communication.
The thorough examination of written sources allows us to decode several main characteristics. The medieval political thought was based on a corpus of virtues. The cardinal ones were order, peace, piety and justice (ordo, pax, pietas, iustitia). Very often also clemency and mercifulness accompanied them. In short, we are able to state, that each ritual was connected to a certain virtue(s), and these virtues were bound with public roles (functions, tasks) in the society. The characteristics and virtues of medieval rulers were to be found in parallel acting and showed strong influential tendencies. They always reflected its ethical and moral rooting in Christian thought. Thanks to these features, we can observe the medieval ruler in all his facets: as an inaugurated, arriving, punishing, humble, merciful, cheering, leaving, majestic ruler etc. If we are to determine the most typical situations when these features were to be observed, we can talk about four cases: festive events, rites de passages, times of crisis, legitimizations of power.   
 

Keywords

rulers (kings, princes), power, representation, Central Europe, dignity of medieval monarch

Bibliografická informácia

Dušan Zupka : Rex eris, si recte facias: si non facias, non eris. Panovnícka moc a jej reprezentácia v stredovekej strednej Európe (10. - 13. storočie). In Forum Historiae, 2014, roč. 8, č. 2. ISSN 1337-6861.


O AUTOROVI O AUTOROVI

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Mgr. Dušan Zupka, PhD (1981), vyštudoval históriu na Filozofickej fakulte Univerzity Komenského v Bratislave, kde prednáša dejiny strednej Európy. Venuje sa kultúrnym dejinám stredoveku, historickej antropológii a formám komunikácie v minulosti. Je autorom monografie Rituály a symbolická komunikácia v stredovekej strednej Európe : Arpádovské Uhorsko 1000 – 1301 (2011).