TÉMA TÉMA

Untitled Document

Historiografia sa vo všeobecnosti pomerne málo venuje priestoru, v ktorom sa udalosti odohrávali. Je zrejmé, že interakcie medzi politickými, hospodárskymi či sociálnymi javmi a životným prostredím, tvoria faktor, ktorý neraz viac ako čokoľvek iné ovplyvnil život človeka. Tomuto aspektu dejín sa v zahraničí už niekoľko desaťročí venuje systematická vedecká pozornosť v rámci odboru environmentálnych dejín. Hoci tento odbor nateraz nemá na Slovensku potrebné inštitucionálne a organizačné zázemie, environmentálne zameraný historický výskum sa realizuje aj u nás. V tomto čísle Forum Historiae ponúkame desať štúdií, ktoré sa venujú vzťahu človeka k prírode, vplyvu industrializácie na životné prostredie, prírodným parkom ako ukážkam „ideálnej krajiny", budovaniu cestnej sieti a jej vplyvu na krajinu a ďalším témam.

Forum Historiae 1/2017: Krajina, príroda a životné prostredie v minulosti
Zostavovatelia: Karol Hollý - Pavel Hronček
Preklady a jazyková úprava anglického jazyka: John Martin Kehoe, Jela Kehoe; Silvia Holéczyová a Jana Tomková (Your Choice - jazykové služby, s.r.o.); Petra Hollá
Jazyková korektúra: Katarína Prekopová
Obrázok na titulnej strane: William Wyld, Manchester from Kersal Moor (1852, výrez). Zdroj: royalcollection.org.uk
Grafická úprava: Juraj Benko
Autori: Iveta Bohálová, Ján Botík, Michal Ďurčo, Ľudovít Hallon, Karol Hollý, Pavel Hronček, Mikuláš Huba, Peter Chrastina, Pavol Jakubec, Peter Jančura, Viktor Pál, Markéta Šantrůčková, Martin Turóci, Peter Urban
 
 
© HistorickÝ Ústav Slovenskej akadÉmie vied 2017

OBSAH OBSAH

« Späť

Heavy Industry and its Environmental Impact in Northern Hungary between 1950 and 1980

Untitled Document
Viktor Pál
Summary

Pál, Viktor: Heavy Industry and its Environmental Impact in Northern Hungary between 1950 and 1980

This article aims to tell the 'pre-history' of the environmental movements in East-Central Europe with a special regard to Hungary and its primary industrial region, the Borsodi Basin in the Sajó river valley.
Soon after the communist takeover, the Borsodi Basin was designated as one of the new Stalinist industrial centres in Hungary. The First Five Year Plan (1950-4) treated the geographical axis of Ózd and Miskolc as a top economic priority. Heavy industrial investment continued after 1956, and the Borsodi Basin, including the towns of Miskolc, Ózd, Kazincbarcika, Sajószentpéter and Leninváros, emerged as fortress of both old coal, and new natural gas/oil based production centres, second only to Budapest.
The Borsodi case was not internationally unique. Rather the contrary, what Borsod witnessed was a stereotypical vicious circle of industrialization, urbanization, water shortage, water supply extension, increasing water pollution, expensive water cleaning projects, which have changed many European industrial areas since the eighteenth century.
During the 1960s and 1970s the dominance of iron, and steel manufacturing was contested by emerging thermoplastic and petrochemical production in Borsod. New chemical factories represented an internationally competitive branch of industry in the European context, but also released significantly more harmful and larger amount of wastewater than the iron, and steel works. To control industrial wastewater discharges on a larger scale, the Hungarian state tightened its ambiguous and inefficient wastewater fine system in 1968.
During the 1970s, the Hungarian wastewater fine system, combined with economical industrial investments, and end-of-pipe technologies was able to significantly reduce energy needs, and the amount of wastewater discharged per production ton. Simultaneously, the state facilitated the individual environmental concern of citizens within controlled spheres of society. Professional and social debates over water issues widened rapidly after 1956. With escalating water pollution issues the water quality of the Sajó River and its tributaries were put into the limelight of professional and public concern in Borsod from the end of the 1950s.

Keywords

environment, pollution, heavy industry, chemical industry, iron and steel industry, environmental protection, state-socialism, Hungary, Kádár regime, Miskolc

Bibliografická informácia

Viktor Pál : Heavy Industry and its Environmental Impact in Northern Hungary between 1950 and 1980. In Forum Historiae, 2017, roč. 11, č. 1. ISSN 1337-6861.


O AUTOROVI O AUTOROVI

Untitled Document

Viktor Pál is Researcher and Lecturer at the University of Helsinki, Finland. He coordinates the IHSEAR: Interdisciplinary Hub for the Study of the Environment and Authoritarian Regimes at the Aleksanteri Institute, Finland, and has served as a guest researcher at UCLA, USA, as well as at various European institutions. Pál's first monograph book: "Technology and the Environment in State-socialist Hungary: An Economic History" is going to be published by Palgrave Macmillan in October 2017.


ČLÁNKY VO FORUM HISTORIAE (PODĽA TÉMY) ČLÁNKY VO FORUM HISTORIAE (PODĽA TÉMY)

2017/01 Krajina, príroda a životné prostredie v minulosti